INDIA:FACTFILE

• The World’s first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. Students from all over the World studied more than 60 subjects.

• The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education.

• Sanskrit is considered the mother of all higher languages. Sanskrit is the most precise, and therefore suitable language for computer software – a report in Forbes magazine, July 1987.

• Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans. Charaka, the father of medicine consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago. Today Ayurveda is fast regaining its rightful place in civilization.

• Maharshi Sushruta is the father of surgery. 2600 years ago he and health scientists of his time conducted complicated surgeries like caesareans, cataract, artificial limbs, fractures, urinary stones and even plastic surgery.

• Usage of anaesthesia was well known in ancient India. Over 125 surgical equipments were used.

• Detailed knowledge of anatomy, physiology, aetiology, embryology, digestion, metabolism, genetics and immunity is also found in many texts.

• India invented the Number System. Zero was invented by Aryabhatta. The place value system, the decimal system was developed in India in 100 BC.

• Aryabhatta was the first to explain spherical shape, size, diameter,rotation and correct speed of Earth in 499 AD.

• Aryabhatta also propounded the Heliocentric theory of gravitation, thus predating Copernicus by almost one thousand years.

• In Siddhanta Siromani (Bhuvanakosam 6) Bhaskaracharya II described about gravity of earth about 400 years before Sir Isaac Newton. He also had some clear notions on differential calculus, and the Theory of Continued Fraction.

• Govindaswamin discovered Newton Gauss Interpolation formula about 1800 years before Newton.

• Vateswaracharya discovered Newton Gauss Backward Interpolation formula about 1000 years before Newton.

• Parameswaracharya discovered Lhuiler’s formula about 400 years before Lhuiler.

• Positive and Negative numbers and their calculations were explained first by Brahmagupta in his book Brahmasputa Siddhanta.

• Nilakanta discovered Newton’s Infinite Geometric Progression convergent series.

• Indians discovered Arithmetic and Geometric progression. Arithmetic progression is explained in Yajurveda.

• Algebra, trigonometry and calculus came from India. Quadratic equations were propounded by Sridharacharya in the 11th century.

• The value of “pi” was first calculated by Boudhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century long before the European mathematicians. This was ‘validated’ by British scholars in 1999.

• The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 1053 with specific names as early as 5000 BC during the Vedic period. Even today, the largest used number is Tera: 1012.

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